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Rule 4. Summons
(a) Summons: Issuance. Upon the filing of the complaint, the clerk shall forthwith issue a summons.
(1) At the written election of the plaintiff or the plaintiff’s attorney, the clerk shall:
(A) Deliver the summons to the plaintiff or plaintiff’s attorney for service under subparagraphs (c)(1) or (c)(3) or (c)(4) or (c)(5) of this rule.
(B) Deliver the summons to the sheriff of the county in which the defendant resides or is found for service under subparagraph (c)(2) of this rule.
(C) Do service by publication under subparagraph (c)(4) of this rule.
(2) The person to whom the summons is delivered shall be responsible for the summons’ prompt service and a copy of the complaint. Upon request of the plaintiff, the separate or additional summons shall issue against any defendants.
(b) Same: Form. The summons shall be dated and signed by the clerk, be under the seal of the court, contain the name of the court and the names of the parties, be directed to the defendant, state the name and address of the plaintiff’s attorney, if any, otherwise the plaintiff’s address. The time within which these rules require the defendant to appear and defend and shall notify him that in case he fails to do so, judgment by default will be rendered against him for the complaint’s relief. Where there are multiple plaintiffs or multiple defendants, or both, the summons, except where service is made by publication, may contain, instead of the names of all parties, the name of the first party on each side, and the name address of the party to be served. Summons served by the process server shall substantially conform to Form 1A. Summons served by the sheriff shall substantially conform to Form 1AA.
(1) By Process Server. A summons and complaint shall, except as provided in subparagraphs (2) and (4) of this subdivision, be served by any person who is not a party and is not less than 18 years of age. When the process server serves a summons and complaint, an amount not exceeding that statutorily allowed to the sheriff for service of process may be taxed as recoverable costs in action.
(2) By Sheriff. At the written request of a party seeking service or such party’s attorney, a summons and complaint shall be served by the sheriff of the county in which the defendant resides or is found, in any manner prescribed by subdivision (d) of this rule. The sheriff shall mark on all summons the date of the receipt by him, and within thirty days of the date of such receipt of the summons, the sheriff shall return the same to the clerk of the court from which it was issued.
(3) By Mail.
(A) A summons and complaint may be served upon a defendant of any class referred to in paragraph (1) or (4) of subdivision (d) of this rule by mailing a copy of the summons and of the complaint (by first-class mail, postage prepaid) to the person to be served, together with two copies of a notice and acknowledgment conforming substantially to Form 1-B and a return envelope, postage prepaid, addressed to the sender.
(B) If the sender receives no acknowledgment of service under this subdivision of this rule within 20 days after the date of mailing, service of such summons and complaint may be made in any other manner permitted by this rule.
(C) Unless good cause is shown for not doing so. The court shall order the payment of the personal service costs by the person served if such person does not complete and return within 20 days after mailing the notice and acknowledgment of receipt of summons.
(D) The notice and acknowledgment of receipt of summons and complaint shall be executed under oath or affirmation.
(4) By Publication.
(A) If the defendant in any proceeding in a chancery court, or in any proceeding in any other court where process by publication is authorized by statute, be shown by sworn complaint or sworn petition, or by a filed affidavit, to be a nonresident of this state or not to be found therein on diligent inquiry and the post office address of such defendant be stated in the complaint, petition, or affidavit, or if it be stated in such sworn complaint or petition that the post office address of the defendant is not known to the plaintiff or petitioner after diligent inquiry, or if the affidavit be made by another for the plaintiff or petitioner, that such post office address is unknown to the affiant after diligent inquiry and he believes it is unknown to the plaintiff or petitioner after diligent inquiry by the plaintiff or petitioner, the clerk, upon filing the complaint or petition, account or other commencement of a proceeding, shall promptly prepare and publish a summons to the defendant to appear and defend the suit. The summons shall be substantially in the form outlined in Form 1-C.
(B) The publication of said summons shall be made once in each week during three successive weeks in a public newspaper of the county in which the complaint or petition, account, cause, or other proceeding is pending if there be such a newspaper, and where there is no newspaper in the county the notice shall be posted at the courthouse door of the county and published as above provided in a public newspaper in an adjoining county or at the seat of government of the state. Upon completion of publication, proof of the prescribed publication shall be filed in the cause. The defendant shall have thirty (30) days from the date of first publication to appear and defend. The post office address of a defendant is given. The street address, if any, shall also be stated unless the complaint, petition, or affidavit above mentioned, avers that after diligent search and inquiry said the street address could not be ascertained.
(C) It shall be the duty of the clerk to hand the summons to the plaintiff or petitioner to be published, or, at his request and his expense, to hand it to the publisher of the proper newspaper for publication. Where the post office address of the absent defendant is stated, it shall be the duty of the clerk to send by mail (first-class mail, postage prepaid) to the address of the defendant, at his post office, a copy of the summons and complaint and to note the fact of issuing the same and mailing the copy, on the general docket, and this shall be the evidence of the summons having been mailed to the defendant.
(D) When unknown heirs are made parties defendant in any proceeding in the chancery court, upon affidavit that the names of such heirs are unknown, the plaintiff may have the publication of summons for them, and such proceedings shall be thereupon in all respects as are authorized in the case of a nonresident defendant. When the parties in interest are unknown, and an affidavit of that fact be filed, they may be made parties by publication to them as unknown parties in interest.
(E) Where summons by publication is upon any unmarried infant, mentally incompetent person, or another person who because of advanced age, physical incapacity, or mental weakness is incapable of managing his own estate, the summons shall also be had upon such other person as shall be required to receive a copy of the summons under paragraph (2) of subdivision (d) of this rule.
(5) Service by Certified Mail on Person Outside State. In addition to service by any other method provided by this rule, a summons may be served on a person outside this state by sending a copy of the summons and the complaint to the person to be served by certified mail, return receipt requested. Where a defendant is a natural person, the envelope containing the summons and complaint shall be marked “restricted delivery.” Service by this method shall be deemed complete as of the date of delivery as evidenced by the return receipt or by the returned envelope marked “Refused.”
(d) Summons and Complaint: Person to Be Served. The summons and complaint shall be served together. Service by sheriff or process server shall be made as follows:
(1) Upon an individual other than an unmarried infant or a mentally incompetent person,
(A) by delivering a copy of the summons and of the complaint to him personally or to an agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process; or (B) if service under subparagraph (1)(A) of this subdivision cannot be made with reasonable diligence, by leaving a copy of the summons and complaint at the defendant’s usual place of abode with the defendant’s spouse or some other person of the defendant’s family above the age of sixteen years who is willing to receive service, and by thereafter mailing a copy of the summons and complaint (by first-class mail, postage prepaid) to the person to be served at the place where a copy of the summons and the complaint was left. Service of a summons in this manner is deemed complete on the 10th day after such mailing.
(2)(A) upon an unmarried infant by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to any one of the following: the infant’s mother, father, legal guardian (of either the person or the estate), or the person having care of such infant or with whom he lives, and if the infant is 12 years of age or older, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to both the infant and the appropriate person as designated above.
(B) upon a mentally incompetent person who is not judicially confined to an institution for the mentally ill or mentally deficient or upon any other person who because of advanced age, physical incapacity, or mental weakness is incapable of managing his own estate by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to such person and by delivering copies to his guardian (of either the person or the estate) or conservator (of either the person or the estate) but if such person has no guardian or conservator, then by delivering copies to him and copies to a person with whom he lives or to a person who cares for him.
(C) upon a mentally incompetent person who is judicially confined in an institution for the mentally ill or mentally retarded by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the incompetent person and delivering copies to said incompetent’s guardian (of either the person or the estate) if any he has. If the superintendent of the said institution or similar official or person shall certify by a certificate endorsed on or attached to the summons that said incompetent is mentally incapable of responding to process, service of summons and complaint on such incompetent shall not be required. Where said confined incompetent has neither guardian nor conservator, the court shall appoint a guardian ad litem for said incompetent to whom copies shall be delivered.
(D) where service of a summons is required under (A), (B), and (C) of this subparagraph to be made upon a person other than the infant, incompetent, or incapable defendant and such person is a plaintiff in action or has an interest therein adverse to that of said defendant, then such person shall be deemed not to exist for service. The requirement of service in (A), (B), and (C) of this subparagraph shall not be met by service upon such person.
(E) if none of the persons required to be served in (A) and (B) above exist other than the infant, incompetent or incapable defendant, then the court shall appoint a guardian ad litem for an infant defendant under the age of 12 years and may appoint a guardian ad litem for such other defendant to whom a copy of the summons and complaint shall be delivered. Delivery of a copy of the summons and complaint to such guardian ad litem shall not dispense with the delivery of copies to the infant, incompetent or incapable defendant where specifically required in (A), and (B) of this subparagraph.
(3) Upon an individual confined to a penal institution of this state or of a subdivision of this state by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the individual, except that when the individual to be served is an unmarried infant or mentally incompetent person the provisions of subparagraph (d)(2) of this rule shall be followed.
(4) Upon a domestic or foreign corporation or upon a partnership or other unincorporated association which is subject to suit under a common name, by delivering a copy of the summons and of the complaint to an officer, a managing or general agent, or to any other agent authorized by appointment or by law to receive service of process.
(5) Upon the State of Mississippi or any one of its departments, officers, or institutions, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the State of Mississippi’s Attorney General.
(6) Upon a county by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the board of supervisors’ president or clerk.
(7) Upon a municipal corporation by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the mayor or municipal clerk of the said municipal corporation.
(8) Upon any governmental entity not mentioned above, by delivering a copy of the summons and complaint to the person, officer, group, or body responsible for the administration of that entity or by serving the appropriate legal officer, if any, representing the entity. Service upon any person who is a member of the “group” or “body” responsible for the entity’s administration shall be sufficient.
(e) Waiver. Any party defendant who is not an unmarried minor, mentally incompetent, or convict of a felony may, without filing any pleading therein, waive the service of process or enter his or her appearance, either or both, in any action, with the same effect as if he or she had been duly served with process, in the manner required by law on the day of the date thereof. Such waiver of service or entry of appearance shall be in writing dated and signed by the defendant and duly sworn to or acknowledged by him or her, or his or her signature thereto be proven by two (2) subscribing witnesses before some officer authorized to administer oaths. Any guardian or conservator may likewise waive the process on himself and/or his ward, and any executor, administrator, or trustee may likewise waive the process on himself in his fiduciary capacity. However, such written waiver of service or entry of appearance must be executed after the day when the action was commenced and filed among the papers in the cause and noted on the general docket.
(f) Return. The person serving the process shall make proof of service thereof to the court promptly. If service is made by a person other than a sheriff, such person shall make an affidavit thereof. If service is made under paragraph (c)(3) of this rule, the return shall be made by the sender’s filing with the court the acknowledgment received under such subdivision. If service is made under paragraph (c)(5) of this rule, the return shall be made by the sender’s filing with the court the return receipt or the returned envelope marked “Refused.” Failure to make proof of service does not affect the validity of the service.
(g) Amendment. At any time in its discretion and upon such terms as it deems, the court may allow any process or proof of service thereof to be amended unless it clearly appears that material prejudice would result in the party’s substantial rights against whom the process is issued.
(h) Summons: Time Limit for Service. If a service of the summons and complaint is not made upon a defendant within 120 days after the filing of the complaint and the party on whose behalf such service was required cannot show good cause why such service was not made within that period, the action shall be dismissed as to that defendant without prejudice upon the court’s own initiative with notice to such party or upon motion.
Rule 45. Subpoena
(a) Form; Issuance.
(1) Every subpoena shall be issued by the clerk under the seal of the court, shall state the name of the court and the title of the action, and shall command each person to whom it is directed to attend and give testimony, or produce and permit inspection and copying of designated books, documents or tangible things in the possession, custody or control of that person, or permit inspection of premises, at a time and place therein specified. The clerk shall issue a subpoena signed and sealed, but otherwise in blank, to a party requesting it, who shall fill it in before service. A command to produce or permit inspection may be joined with a command to appear at trial or hearing or deposition or be issued separately.
(2) Subpoenas for attendance at a trial or hearing, for attendance at a deposition, and for production or inspection shall issue from the court in which the action is pending. In the case of a deposition to be taken in foreign litigation, the subpoena shall be issued by a court clerk for the county in which the deposition is to be taken.
(b) Place of Examination. A resident of the State of Mississippi may be required to attend a deposition, production, or inspection only in the county wherein he resides or is employed or transacts his business in person, or at such other convenient place as is fixed by order of the court. A non-resident of this state subpoenaed within this state may be required to attend only in the county wherein he is served or at such other convenient place as is fixed by the court’s order.
(1) A subpoena may be served by a sheriff, or by his deputy, or by any other person who is not a party and is not less than 18 years of age. His return endorsed thereon shall be prima facie proof of service, or the person served may acknowledge service in writing on the subpoena. Service of the subpoena shall be executed upon the witness personally. Except when the court excused upon a showing of indigence, the party causing the subpoena to issue shall tender to a non-party witness at the time of service the fee for one day’s attendance plus mileage allowed by law. When the subpoena is issued on behalf of the State of Mississippi or an officer or agency, fees and mileage need not be tendered in advance.
(2) Proof of service shall be made by filing with the clerk of the court from which the subpoena was issued a statement, certified by the person who did the service, setting forth the date and manner of service, the county in which it was served, the names of the persons served, and the name, address and telephone number of the person doing the service.
(d) Protection of Persons Subject to Subpoenas.
(1) In General.
(A) On timely motion, the court by which a subpoena was issued shall quash or modify the subpoena if it (i) fails to allow a reasonable time for compliance; (ii) requires disclosure of privileged or other protected matter and no exception or waiver applies, (iii) designates an improper place for examination, or (iv) subjects a person to undue burden or expense.
(B) If a subpoena (i) requires disclosure of a trade secret or other confidential research, development, or commercial information, or (ii) requires disclosure of an unretained expert’s opinion or information not describing specific events or occurrences in dispute and resulting from the expert’s study made not at the request of any party, the court may order appearance or production only upon specified conditions.
(2) Subpoenas for Production or Inspection.
(A) A person commanded to produce and permit inspection and copying of designated books, papers, documents or tangible things, or to permit inspection of premises need not appear in person at the place of production or inspection unless commanded by the subpoena to appear for deposition, hearing or trial. Unless for a good cause shown the court shortens the time, a subpoena for production or inspection shall allow not less than ten days for the person upon whom it is served to comply with the subpoena. A copy of all such subpoenas shall be served immediately upon each party by Rule 5. A subpoena commanding production or inspection will be subject to the provisions of Rule 26(d).
(B) The person to whom the subpoena is directed may, within ten days after the service thereof or on or before the time specified in the subpoena for compliance, if such time is less than ten days after service, serve upon the party serving the subpoena written objection to inspection or copying of any or all of the designated materials, or an inspection of the premises. If an objection is made, the party serving the subpoena shall not be entitled to inspect and copy the material except under the court’s order from which the subpoena was issued. The party serving the subpoena may, if an objection has been made, move at any time upon notice to the person served for an order to compel the production or inspection.
(C) The court, upon motion made promptly and in any event, at or before the time specified in the subpoena for compliance therewith, may (i) quash or modify the subpoena if it is unreasonable or oppressive, or (ii) condition the denial of the motion upon the advance by the person in whose behalf the subpoena is issued of the reasonable cost of producing the books, papers, documents, or tangible things.
(e) Duties in Responding to Subpoena.
(1) A person responding to a subpoena to produce documents shall produce them as they are kept in the usual business course or shall organize and label them to correspond with the categories in demand.
(2) When information subject to a subpoena is withheld on a claim that it is privileged or subject to protection as trial preparation materials, the claim shall be made expressly. It shall be supported by a description of the nature of the documents, communications, or things not produced sufficient to enable the demanding party to contest the claim.
(f) Sanctions. On motion of a party or of the person upon whom a subpoena for the production of books, papers, documents, or tangible things is served and upon a showing that the subpoena power is being exercised in bad faith or such manner as unreasonably to annoy, embarrass, or oppress the party or the person upon whom the subpoena is served, the court in which the action is pending shall order that the subpoena be quashed and may enter such further orders as justice may require to curb abuses of the powers granted under this rule. To this end, the court may impose an appropriate sanction.
(g) Contempt. Failure by any person without adequate excuse to obey a subpoena served upon him may be deemed a contempt of the court from which the subpoena was issued.