This article will provide guidance regarding Switzerland Process Service. The Swiss Confederation, as the nation is formally known, is a landlocked country in western, central, and southern Europe. The twenty-six cantons that make up Switzerland’s federal republic are governed by Bern’s federal authorities, the capital city of the federal republic.
The Swiss political system is characterized by direct democracy and federalism. Switzerland has three levels of legal jurisdiction: [A.] municipal, [B.] cantonal, and [C.] federal. Switzerland’s constitutions of 1848 and 1999 specify a kind of direct democracy (sometimes called half-direct or representative direct democracy because it is aided by the more commonplace institutions of representative democracy). The federal system’s ‘people rights‘ include the ability to launch a federal initiative and a referendum, both of which have the power to reverse decisions made by parliament.
A group of individuals may oppose a bill enacted by parliament by calling a federal referendum if they obtain fifty thousand signatures within a hundred days. If this is the case, a nationwide vote will be held in which the legislation will be approved or rejected by a simple majority of people. A constitutional referendum on federal legislation may also be held by any eight of the cantons.
METHODS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN SWITZERLAND
For big business conflicts in Switzerland, the courts or arbitration are the most common methods of resolution. Commercial courts (Handelsgericht) in Zurich, Berne, St. Gallen, and Aargau have longstanding reputations for efficiency, expertise, and high settlement rates.
The character of most legal processes in Switzerland is adversarial. It is the court’s job to keep track of the Switzerland Process Service chronology and the collection of evidence. Generally speaking, a claimant’s claim will be successful if they can persuade the court that they are entitled to the Switzerland Process Service benefits claimed.
A copy of the statement of claim is sent to the defendant, and the claimant is generally ordered to pay court expenses in advance. The defendant has twenty days from the date of payment to prepare a statement of defense. It is possible to extend Switzerland Process Service filing deadlines twice for additional periods of twenty days, depending on the intricacy of the case. The court may sometimes impose a single, lengthy deadline that cannot be extended.
The courts’ need for hard copy Switzerland Process Service records necessitates the exchange of paper documents rather than electronic files in the succeeding stages of litigation. It is the right of a claimant to respond to a defense statement. The manner in which the court plans to continue with the issue dictates the timing of the response and the manner in which it is presented. The court, if it considers them necessary, may ensure that the response and rejoinder must be sent in writing. An oral response and rejoinder should be scheduled for a preparation hearing. The main hearing will begin immediately, with the parties filing their written responses and rejoinders.
New facts and evidence may be brought up by the parties in their replies and rejoinders to each other. Every other party’s Switzerland Process Service submission must be communicated to the parties by the court. Any unsolicited Switzerland Process Service submissions must be responded to within ten days, according to the European Court of Human Rights doctrine.
If a second exchange of Switzerland Process Service briefs or a preliminary hearing with oral reply and rejoinder preceded the main hearing, alleging new facts and admitting further Switzerland Process Service evidence at the main hearing is only authorized under extremely narrow circumstances. Swiss courts may not be able to require a claimant to obtain Switzerland Process Service expenses because of international treaties. According to the Lugano Convention on jurisdiction and execution of judgments in civil and commercial proceedings 2007, if the claimant has neither Swiss residence nor registered office, the court cannot require security for the defendant’s expenses.
The cantonal high court hears appeals from first instance court orders. Removing or amending an existing order is an option available to defendants. The Federal Tribunal may hear an appeal from a high court ruling if either: the appellant will suffer irreparable injury if the appeal is denied or approved. The Federal Tribunal’s ruling might lead to a definitive conclusion quickly, bypassing expensive and time-consuming evidentiary hearings.
DOMESTIC PROCESS SERVICE REQUIREMENTS IN SWITZERLAND
There must be evidence presented by the applicant in the primary enforcement procedures (Rechtsöffnungsverfahren) to support the Switzerland Process Service claim’s title validity. The only defenses raised by the debtor are that the claim has been dismissed, delayed, or otherwise expired.
The Swiss court handling the request for attachment may also rule on the enforceability of the foreign judgment in the same procedure if the Switzerland Process Service request is based on a decision from a Lugano Convention signatory state’s competent court.
According to the Code of Civil Procedure, judgments for particular performance may be executed by filing a Switzerland Process Service request with the enforcement court in the individual’s residence (for natural people) or at the location of the registered office (for legal persons). Requests for enforcement may be made in the jurisdiction where the measures are to be implemented or where the initial decision was delivered.
The claimant must provide proof that their claim is enforceable before Switzerland Process Service may be pursued. If the required party refuses to comply, the court issues an order requiring them to do so or faces penalties, including a fine. The asking party may also get the judge’s permission to hire a third party to take over the performance. If the defendant continues to refuse to enforce the claim, the claimant has the right to convert their demand for a particular performance into a claim for damages.
ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGEMENTS
Statutes have priority over international agreements. As far as jurisdictional agreements go, the Lugano Convention is the most significant In order to comply with international treaties regulating the international civil process, a foreign party must employ the methods of judicial aid when serving foreign procedural notifications on parties in Switzerland. Two important multilateral agreements have Switzerland as a signatory: [A.] Civil Procedure Convention of the Hague, 1954 (Hague Civil Procedure Convention) and [B.] Civil and commercial matters 1965 Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents (Hague Service Convention).
It is permitted by a number of Switzerland Process Service bilateral agreements to communicate directly with each other’s judiciaries. Switzerland automatically implements the Hague Civil Procedure Convention to any foreign petitions it receives if there is no international agreement.
As part of the Hague Convention on Civil Procedure, parties must utilize consular channels to deliver the papers they need to be served to the consular representative in Switzerland, which subsequently goes to the Swiss Federal Office of Justice to serve the party in Switzerland.
According to the Hague Service Convention, parties must ask their local authorities to send Switzerland Process Service requests to the central authority in Switzerland in accordance with a sample request. Central authorities in each canton serve Switzerland Process Service on residents in their respective jurisdictions. The central authority contacts the appropriate court, and Switzerland Process Service papers are subsequently served through certified mail by the court’s staff. Suppose the legislation in the nation where Switzerland Process Service is requested authorizes attorneys to serve papers. In that case, these individuals are recognized as judicial officials and may go straight to the central authority. Foreign Switzerland Process Service requests are routed via the Federal Office of Justice, which is classified as a central authority since it is difficult for requesting states to determine which of the twenty-six central cantonal bodies has jurisdiction.
Foreign diplomats and consular officials are prohibited from serving legal Switzerland Process Service documents directly on Swiss soil; hence all legal documents must be served by a third party authorized to do so by Swiss law. It is permitted by a number of bilateral agreements to communicate directly with each other’s judiciaries. The Hague Conventions are supplemented by bilateral agreements. Switzerland applies the Hague Civil Procedure Convention to foreign petitions in the absence of an international agreement.
Evidence is then collected at the witness’s place of residence by the appropriate cantonal authorities. Under the Hague Convention on Civil Procedure, the diplomatic mission in Switzerland must receive the Switzerland Process Service request from the state’s responsible authorities. Thereinafter, the Swiss Federal Office of Justice receives the request from the requesting state’s diplomatic representation in Switzerland. To obtain testimony, the Federal Office of Justice of Switzerland notifies the cantonal court authority in the witness’s home canton of the request.
Regarding requests for pre-trial discovery of materials known to common law nations under the Hague Evidence Convention, Switzerland expressed a reservation. Requests for information that is not relevant to the case or an effort to find evidence to support a claim (referred to as ‘fishing expeditions’) are refused. Diplomatic personnel, consular agents, and commissioners are prohibited from taking testimony in Switzerland. This is only feasible if the federal government gives its permission.
As long as the ruling was handed down by a Lugano Convention signatory state court, an enforcement application must be submitted to the Swiss court that has Switzerland Process Service jurisdiction, as well as a certified copy of the ruling that meets all of the elements required to show its legitimacy. At the appeals stage, a hearing is only granted to the person or entity against whom enforcement is sought.
The enforcing party must file with the relevant court if the verdict was given by a court from a non-Lugano Convention party.
A party’s request for protective measures might be granted by a court without the opposing party’s knowledge. Denying recognition will only be done if it is in conflict with Swiss law or the foreign procedure did not comply with procedural safeguards that were deemed essential in Switzerland.
IMPORTANCE OF ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN SWITZERLAND
Disputes involving billions of dollars are generally settled in court or arbitration. As for alternative dispute resolution methods, mediation appears to be growing in popularity, as evidenced by the rise in the number of organizations providing mediation services and training, as well as by the adoption in 2019 of the Swiss Rules on Commercial Mediation by the Swiss Chambers of Commerce and Industry.
International business conflicts are more likely to use arbitration (as opposed to other types of ADR) than domestic ones.
THE HAGUE CONVENTION ON SERVICE IN SWITZERLAND
In Switzerland, documents may be served only through the appropriate Swiss Central Authority pursuant to the Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters, to which the United States is a party, or via letters rogatory.
The Hague Service Convention facilitates Switzerland Process Service by a foreign judicial authority. The person seeking Switzerland Process Service, or their attorney, should obtain two copies of the Request for Service form (USM-94) from any United States Marshall’s office.. Switzerland Process Service is requested by sending completed forms along with the documents to be served and any necessary translations to a foreign central authority in duplicate. The Swiss noted in their accession to the treaty that service by mail to the parties involved is not permitted.
Switzerland stated in a reservation to its accession to the Convention that if the addressee does not voluntarily accept a document, Switzerland Process Service cannot be served officially on them in accordance with Article 5 unless the document is in the language of the authority addressed, i.e., in German, French, or Italian, or accompanied by a translation into one of these languages, depending on the part of Switzerland in which the document is served.
Switzerland has stated that it is opposed to consular or diplomatic service on its territory (Articles 8). Upon ratification, Switzerland declared that it opposes the use of the Switzerland Process Service methods specified in Article 10, including service through postal channels.
As a general rule, the US prefers that other countries party to the Convention use service provided by the Convention Central Authority. Suppose service of process by registered mail is performed in a nation like Switzerland, which may not consider such service lawful. In that case, execution of a U.S. judgment in that or a third country may be problematic.
The U.S. Embassy in Bern has stated that the amount of time necessary to accomplish service by the Government of Switzerland varies by case and canton but will normally proceed reasonably swiftly. Because fewer bureaucratic processes are necessary, service and taking of evidence under the Hague Conventions will likely be speedier than the three months or more required when utilizing the letters rotatory technique. The appropriate points of contact for status reports are the respective cantonal central authority. Proof of Switzerland Process Service will be provided directly to the applicant.
Citations, orders, and judgments must be served in accordance with Article 138 of the Code of Civil Procedure via registered mail or a similar Switzerland Process Service method that requires receipt acknowledgment. When a Switzerland Process Service document is handed to the addressee, an employee, or a member of the family, it is considered to have been notified if the recipient is sixteen years old or older. The court’s order to serve the document on the addressee in person has been reserved.
According to the rules of civil procedure, the Central Authority formally notifies acts as a general rule. Central Authority or the competent cantonal court will note this on a certificate and inform the requested State that the notification must be carried out, and a translation will then be required. Suppose the addressee does not voluntarily accept a document. In that case, Switzerland Process Service cannot be officially served on them in accordance with Article 5(1) unless it is in the language of the authority addressed, i.e., in German, French or Italian, or accompanied by a translation into one of these languages, depending on the part of Switzerland in which it is to be served (the official languages of every canton are mentioned on the list of Cantonal Central Authorities).
The Hague Service Convention made it easier for parties to serve each other in other contracting nations by establishing a simpler process. State governments must appoint a central authority to receive requests for assistance under the treaty. An official of the judiciary who is qualified to serve process in the state where the Switzerland Process Service is to be made is entitled to transmit a request directly to the state’s central authority. If a central authority receives a request, it provides for Switzerland Process Service via a local court or other means allowed in the receiving state. A certificate of service is sent to the court official who requested it after Switzerland Process Service has been completed.
Documents can be faxed at (800) 296-0115, emailed email@example.com, or uploaded to our website. We do require prepayment and accept all major credit and debit cards. Once payment is processed, your sales receipt is immediately emailed for your records.
Drop-offs must call and make an appointment first to be added to building security to permit access to our office. Documents for service must be in a sealed envelope with payment in the form of a money order or attorney check (WE DO NOT ACCEPT CASH) payable to UNDISPUTED LEGAL INC.; All documents will be received by our receptionist.
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New York: (212) 203-8001 – 590 Madison Avenue, 21st Floor, New York, New York 10022
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Long Island: (516) 208-4577 – 626 RXR Plaza, 6th Floor, Uniondale, New York 11556
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Connecticut: (203) 489-2940 – 500 West Putnam Avenue, Suite 400, Greenwich, Connecticut 06830
New Jersey: (201) 630-0114 – 101 Hudson Street, 21 Floor, Jersey City, New Jersey 07302
Washington DC: (202) 655-4450 – 2200 Pennsylvania Avenue, 4 Fl East, Washington DC 20037
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1. German: Volksrechte, French: droits populaires, Italian: diritti popolari
2. In most cantons, Letters of Request are sent directly from a judicial authority in that canton to the Central Authority of the requested State.
In other cantons, Letters of Request are first sent to the cantonal Central Authority before being sent to the Central Authority of the requested State.
3. Articles 8 to 16 of the Hague Civil Procedure Convention have been replaced by the Hague Evidence Convention (Article 29, Hague Evidence Convention). As a result, the Hague Evidence Convention takes priority if a member state has signed both accords.
4. Articles 271 (prohibited acts for a foreign state) and 273 (economic intelligence service) of the Swiss Criminal Code or other special statutory provisions may be violated if evidence located in Switzerland is handed over to foreign authorities or parties in violation of the applicable international conventions to which Switzerland is a party (such as banking regulation and data protection regulation).
5. But a lawyer does not require authorization when collecting evidence in Switzerland during ordinary case preparation.
6. A decision on the application must be made ex parte, and the judgment must be declared immediately enforceable upon completion of Annex V’s procedures, without consideration of the possibility that recognition and enforcement might be denied.
7. Required documents are:
- The decision in its entirety, as well as a verified copy of it.
- Confirmation that the judgment cannot be appealed or that the appeal has been exhausted.
- An official document certifying that the defaulting party was called and given a chance to present its defense is required for judgments by default.
8. 20 UST 361; TIAS 6638
9. Additionally, Federal regulation (22 CFR 92.85) prohibits officers of the United States Foreign Service from serving process on behalf of private litigants or appointing others to do so, notwithstanding any state law to the contrary.
10. According to Article 5 (1) a) or Article 5 (2)