HOW TO SERVE LEGAL PAPERS ON CHEVRON CORPORATION

Chevron

Undisputed Legal | California Process Service

Chevron is an American global energy company,  established in 1984. The Chevron Corporation is an energy corporation from the United States and is the third-largest oil company in America. Based in San Ramon, California, the company is one of the successor companies of Standard Oil and operates in more than a hundred and eighty countries. 

Chevron is engaged in all areas of the petroleum and natural gas industries, including hydrocarbon exploration and production; refining, marketing, transportation; chemical manufacturing, and energy distribution. It was also one of the seven sisters that controlled the world’s oil company from the mid-1940s through the 1970s.

[1.0] BACKGROUND OF CHEVRON

On 10th October 2000, Texaco stated that it would acquire General Motors‘ stake in GM Ovonicsa, the producer for electric vehicles of NiMH, which has hence been reorganized in 2003 into a 50/50 joint venture between Ovonics and Chevron. Chevron and Energy Conservation Devices both sold their Cobasys shares to SB LiMotive Co in 2009.

Chevron announced the Texaco purchase  on15th October 2000 in an agreement valued at  USD 45 billion and created the United States’ second biggest petroleum business with a combined market value of about almost a hundred billion. The entity has become the world’s fourth-largest publicly listed petroleum firm. The purchase was finalized on 9th October 2001, with the merged business called ‘ChevronTexaco.’ ChevronTexaco stated on 9th  May 2005 that it would remove the Texaco brand and come back to the name of Chevron, although Texaco remains a Chevron company brand.

Interestingly, one of Chevron’s early predecessors, ‘Star Oil’, discovered oil at the Pico Canyon Oilfield in the Santa Susana Mountains north of Los Angeles in 1876. 

[2.0] THE CHEVRON DEFERENCE

Chevron United States of America, Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc, was a seminal decision in which the United States Supreme Court established the legal standard for deciding whether to defer to a government agency’s interpretation of the law it administers. The judgment established what is now referred to as ‘Chevron deference.’

The Supreme Court, in Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defence Council, outlined a limited role for courts in reviewing these types of agency interpretations. The Chevron test, which has been cited and followed thousands of times by federal courts since 1984, requires courts to enforce the clearly expressed intent of Congress. In the absence of such clarity, Chevron instructs reviewing courts to defer to an agency’s construction of an ambiguous statute if the agency’s interpretation is reasonable. Under Chevron then, it is generally left to federal agencies, and not the courts, to resolve ambiguities necessary to interpret and implement authority provided to the agency by Congress. 

Probably the most common case referenced in American administrative law is Chevron. The decision establishes the doctrine that the court should refer to the ambiguous wording of a federal agency interpreted by Congressional law pertaining to the agency. Eighteen years later, Chevron had been able to submit Chevron’s deference in order to win a further case before the Supreme Court, Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Echazabal. The Court applied Chevron in a unanimous decision and maintained an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulation as reasonable. The regulation allowed an employer to refuse to employ an applicant when a disability on the job of the applicant constitutes a ‘direct threat’ to the health of its own employer.

Three Supreme Court judgments of the twenty-first century may restrict the extent of administrative action by which Chevron deferred to ‘force of law’-backed agency decisions. This new philosophy is often called ‘Chevron step zero’.’ An agency that does not get the deference of Chevron may nevertheless be deferred to some degree by the former Skidmore v. Swift & Co. The majority of people in Christensen v. Harris County (2000) stated that Chevron deference should apply to official agency papers that are legal and Skidmore should apply to materials of less formal agencies to try to adequately address ‘force of law’ in Chevron step zero. 

The Supreme Court has indicated in King v. Burwell (2015) that deference from Chevron may be inadequate in regulatory acts of ‘deep economic and political importance,’ suggesting the potential to significantly restrict or even eliminate doctrine.

[3.0] CHEVRON SUBSIDIARIES

  1. CHEVRON ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT COMPANY

The Environmental Management Company of Chevron (EMC) is responsible for the remedy, recovery, and retirement of assets. The entity was established on 16th August 1920 in California as a Domestic Stock Company registered for purposes of California Process Service. It retains Corporation Service Company as its registered agent for California Process Service. 

EMC provides a broad range of environmental services, guided by The Chevron Way, including the redevelopment of heritage and work sites, development of acquisition plans to manage the footprint and the reduction of operational impacts, while adding plans that ostensibly place a high priority on the protection of people and the environment in the communities where Chevron is working. EMC identifies possibilities to transform land and assets for corporate, public, external, and wildlife reuse by analyzing environmental effects and evaluating state options.

Chevron Environmental Management Company (EMC) is a Chevron Corporation service provider with responsibility for the abandonment and remediation of infrastructure across Chevron operations worldwide. EMC work items include environmental monitoring and environmental evaluation, deconstruction of onshore and offshore facilities, well plug and discontinuation work, excavation, soil and groundwater systems construction, and operation

  1. CHEVRON POWER HOLDINGS INC.

Chevron Power Holdings Inc is located in California and is part of the energy services industry. Chevron Power Holdings Inc is a major establishment that forms a part of the Chevron group. The entity was incorporated in California on 28th February 2001 September 1996 although it falls under Delaware Jurisdiction for purposes of California Process Service.  This renders Chevron Power Holding a foreign corporation according to California Process Service regulations. However, the agent for California Process Service is a Corporation Service Company. 

A foreign (out-of-state) corporation may be registered with the office of the Secretary of State by presenting a statement, a designation by a Foreign Corporation (Form S&DC-S/N), along with a Certificate of Good Standing. There is a charge of USD 100 to be qualified to receive California Process Service.

After processing the application, the company will be authorized to operate in California. Registration of a foreign corporation needs [A.] Statements and Foreign Corporation Designation [B.] Good Standing Certificate (no older than six months) [C.] Registered Agent of California

  1. CHEVRON OVERSEAS PETROLEUM PACIFIC COMPANY

Chevron Overseas Petroleum Pacific Company was formed on 9th February 2004. The Company operates in the State of California and consequently is regulated by California Process Service requirements, although it has a Department of State registration in Delaware. 

A Corporation registered in Delaware may do business in any state, although the California Process Service conditions would be governed in accordance with the Delaware jurisdiction.  A foreign corporation is an organization that is integrated under laws other than California (Cal. Corp. Code §§ 177 and 171) that is not a federally-chartered organization. Foreign companies must register in California by obtaining a certificate of qualification issued by the Secretary of State before they conduct intrastate activities in California. Transacting intra-state business other than intergovernmental or international trade implies engaging in repetitive and consecutive transactions in California.

Foreign companies are generally considered not to be engaging, transacting, or doing business in California or therefore not governed by laws of California just because they exist as domestic  (California) shareholders, domestic limited partnership limited or domestic limited liability companies managers, or because they engage in some domestic limited liability company. 

If, however, a foreign corporation has over 50% of the California shareholders and meets the three-tiered payroll, sells and property test, the corporation is designated as a foreign or quasi-domestic corporation and is subject to certain provisions of the California Corporations Code in relation, inter alia, to [A.] Election of yearly directors. [B.] Dismissal of managers and vacancy for managers. [C.]Standard of care of directors.

The agent for California Process Service for Chevron Overseas Petroleum Pacific Company is The Prentice-Hall Corporation System, Inc. 

  1. CHEVRON PETROLEUM SERVICE COMPANY

Being incorporated in Delaware on 10th January 1958, Chevron Petroleum Service Company does not come under the jurisdiction of California, although Chevron’s principal corporate headquarters remains there for the purposes of California Process Service. Like, most of the other Chevron subsidiaries, the registered agent for California Process Service is Corporation Trust Company.  A private corporation may be served either by leaving a copy of the California Process Service with said registered agent or by being notified by publication and mail similar to California Process Service levied upon individuals. 

For the purposes of California Process Service, the corporation is considered a foreign corporation under California jurisdiction.  The California Process Service rules relating to quasi-domestic corporations also apply to foreign parent corporations if their share ownership and operation characteristics meet the statute’s conditions.

  1. CHEVRON U.S.A. HOLDINGS INC

The Chevron U.S.A. Holdings Inc is a corporation organized and existing under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, where the original Certificate of Incorporation was filed with the Secretary of State of Delaware on June 9th, 1982. The nature of the business remains within  California Process Service guidelines necessary to engage in any activity for which corporations are to be organized under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware and can be identified for the purposes of California Process Service according to the Articles of Incorporation of the entity. 

The registered office or place of business for California Process Service for the Chevron U.S.A. Holdings Inc is in the State of Delaware. The registered agent  for California Process Service is  The Prentice-Hall Corporation System, Inc, which is located in Wilmington, Delaware, and is part of the Legal Services Industry. 

  1. UNION OIL COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA

Union Oil Company of California and Unocal Company was a leader in petroleum exploration and marketing during the 20th century and in the early 21st century, known as Unocal / Oil Company of California & Unocal Corporation. The company has its headquarters in El Segundo, California, USA to receive California Process Service. The Union Oil Company of California was founded on October 17th, 1890, in Santa Paula, California, by Lyman Stewart, Thomas Bard, and Wallace Hardison. It was a merger of three Southern Californian oil companies: the Sespe Oil Company and the Torrey Canyon Oil Company (both owned by Bard) and the Hardison and Stewart Oil Company

Unocal has been engaged in energy initiatives both domestically and globally. Unocal was one of the leading participants in the CentGas consortium which tried, at one point after the Taliban siege of Kabul, to construct a Trans-Afghanistan pipeline from the Caspian region, via Afghanistan, to the Indian Ocean.

Unocal combined its entire petroleum business upstream with Chevron on August 10, 2005, and became a wholly-owned subsidiary. Unocal then stopped working as a separate business. It is now typified as a domestic stock company for California Process Service purposes in the jurisdiction of California, with the agent for California Process Service being  Corporation Service Company. 

Interestingly, in the summer of 1992, Maxis, the developers of SimCity, set up the Maxis Business Simulation (MBS) branch, responsible for serious business simulations that looked and performed like maxis games. The first MBS project was to play for Chevron’s oil refinery, which was ultimately called SimRefinery.  While Chevron’s training experts lauded the efficacy of the game, SimRefinery was not widely used in the business. In June 2020, a functioning copy of SimRefinery was restored and uploaded to the Internet Archive, providing a first opportunity for the public to play the historical game.

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Sources

1. Chevron United States of America, Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 467 U.S. 837 (1984)

2. The decision involved a lawsuit challenging the U.S. government’s interpretation of the word ‘source’ in an environmental statute. In 1977, the U.S. Congress passed a bill that amended the Clean Air Act of 1963—the United States’s comprehensive law regulating air pollution. The bill changed the law so that all companies in the United States that planned to build or install any major source of air pollutants were required to go through an elaborate ‘new-source review’ process before they could proceed. The bill did not precisely define what constituted a ‘source’ of air pollutants, and so the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formulated a definition as part of implementing the changes to the law. The EPA’s initial definition of a ‘source’ of air pollutants covered essentially any significant change or addition to a plant or factory, but in 1981 it changed its definition to be simply a plant or factory in its entirety. This allowed companies to avoid the ‘new-source review’ process entirely if, when increasing their plant’s emissions through building or modifying, they simultaneously modified other parts of their plant to reduce emissions so that the overall change in the plant’s emissions was zero. The Natural Resources Defense Council, an American non-profit environmental advocacy organization, then filed a lawsuit challenging the legality of the EPA’s new definition.

3. Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Echazabal, 536 U.S. 73 (2002).

4. Respondent Echazabal worked for independent contractors at one of petitioner Chevron U. S. A. lnc.’s oil refineries until Chevron refused to hire him because of a liver condition-which its doctors said would be exacerbated by continued exposure to toxins at the refinery-and the contractor employing him laid him off in response to Chevron’s request that it reassign him to a job without exposure to toxins or remove him from the refinery. 

5. For instance, Chevron’s deference is likely to receive a rule issued under the ‘A notice and Comment’ requirements of Article 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act, but a letter delivered by an agency, such as a US Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) ‘no-action letter.

6. Skidmore v. Swift & Co., 323 U.S. 134,

7. Christensen v. Harris County, 529 U.S. 576

8. King v. Burwell, 576 U.S. 473,

9. Entity Address:

6001 BOLLINGER CANYON ROAD
SAN RAMON CA 94583

Entity Mailing Address:

6001 BOLLINGER CANYON ROAD
SAN RAMON CA 94583

10. Entity Address:

6001 BOLLINGER CANYON ROAD
SAN RAMON CA 94583

Entity Mailing Address:

6001 BOLLINGER CANYON ROAD
SAN RAMON CA 94583

11. Entity Address:

6001 BOLLINGER CANYON RD
SAN RAMON CA 94583

Entity Mailing Address:

6001 BOLLINGER CANYON RD V2322A
SAN RAMON CA 94583

12. ADDRESS

8th Street & Park Avenue North Renton, WA 98055 United States

13. California Corporations Code § 191(b)-(c(c).

14. Cal. Corp. Code Section 301 Cal. Corp. Code Section 301

15. Cal. Corp. Code §§ 303-305

16. Cal. Corp. Code §§ 303-305

17. THE CORPORATION TRUST COMPANY

CORPORATION TRUST CENTER 1209 ORANGE ST

WILMINGTON County: New Castle

DE Postal Code: 19801

302-658-7581

18. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/12927/000119312506102223/d8k.htm

19. This would also address objects or purposes to be transacted, promoted, or carried on

20. To be located at 2711 Centerville Road, Suite 400, in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle

21. THE PRENTICE-HALL CORPORATION SYSTEM, INC.

251 LITTLE FALLS DRIVE

WILMINGTON County: New Castle

DE Postal Code: 19808

302-636-5400

22. Entity Address:

6001 BOLLINGER CANYON ROAD
SAN RAMON CA 94583

Entity Mailing Address:

6001 BOLLINGER CANYON ROAD
SAN RAMON CA 94583

23. Agent for Service of Process:

CORPORATION SERVICE COMPANY WHICH WILL DO BUSINESS IN CALIFORNIA AS CSC – LAWYERS INCORPORATING SERVICE (C1592199

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