This article will provide guidance on the Code of Civil Procedure in Australia. Australia's judicial system may be seen as a collection of distinct subsystems. Constitutional conventions, legislation, rules, and the judicially decided common law system are all part of it. The common law heritage of England heavily influences its legal structures and customs. Australia's legal system is based on the common law tradition of England, making it a common-law country. All Australian states adhere to the same common law system (subject to augmentation by statutes). 

The federal structure of government is outlined in the Australian Constitution. There is a national legislature with authority to enact laws with supreme legal authority on a limited set of predetermined issues.  The States are autonomous governments, each with a legislature and judicial system. The Commonwealth of Australia recognizes regional legislatures in the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory, among others.

The country's apex court is called the High Court. Its rulings are binding in all court proceedings. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, meaning it handles cases from all lower courts in the nation.  Indigenous Australians' diverse customary legal systems were the only legal frameworks in Australia before colonization. The colonial legal system consciously neglected indigenous legal traditions, and post-colonial Australian courts have only partially acknowledged their significance. 


Most states have now codified the rules of civil procedure as delegated legislation, sometimes known as Uniform Civil Procedure Rules. The Chief Justice of the relevant Supreme Court is generally the chair of a rules committee with the power to amend the rules. However, the title and structure of the relevant civil procedure rules are not uniform across jurisdictions.

Service of a foreign originating process may be carried out in Australia in conformity with the Hague Service Convention if the foreign nation is also a party—the procedure for approving service under the Hague Service Convention. To be served under the Hague Service Convention, a Registrar (a judicial officer of an Australian Court) must be contacted. A Hague Service Request (Form USM-94 in the US, for example) must be completed and sent to Australia's Central Authority, the Commonwealth Attorney-Department, and the General to make the application. After that, the application will be sent to the Registrar in the specific Australian State or Territory where the service will occur. The Court will arrange for the service of the relevant papers in line with the application if the Registrar is pleased with the application.

Service under the Convention in Australia typically takes three months, although it might sometimes take longer. The answer differs depending on the State or Territory where the application is received and where the intended recipient is located. In rare circumstances, service of an originating process may alternatively be carried out in Australia by delivering the papers to the recipient by registered mail rather than via the Hague Service Convention approval procedure. For this to be lawful, service through registered mail must also be permitted in the relevant foreign country's legal system.

In certain situations, personal service may be provided via a process server in Australia. Once again, service via a process server must be permitted in the relevant foreign jurisdiction to be considered legal. In cases when a foreign nation is not a signatory to the Hague Service Convention, it is customary in Australia to serve foreign-originating legal documents via diplomatic channels.  Alternatively, service may be accomplished via mail or a process server, depending on the foreign nation's laws.


The term "service of a document" refers to the procedure by which a copy of an application to the Court or other legal document is sent to any person who is intended to receive a said copy in accordance with the applicable legal regulations.

All other parties to the action must be given adequate notice of the first application in that proceeding. An originating procedure is an application that seeks to initiate legal action. Service of originating process must be made personally on the respondents specified therein. 

When it comes to service an individual, the Uniform Civil Procedure Rules outline the proper procedure. Personal service on a corporation or other entity treated as a corporation (such a municipality or a strata plan owner's corporation) is governed by special provisions in the Uniform Civil Procedure Rules. Regarding the originating process, the Uniform Civil Procedure Rules are quite specific.

Suppose a person is to be served personally. In that case, a copy of the document must be left with the person, or if the person refuses the copy, it must be placed down in the person's presence with a statement explaining the nature of the document. Suppose a person seeking to serve another person is barred from physically contacting that person to deliver a document to that person. In that case, that person may leave the document as close to that person as reasonably safe.

Service of process onto a corporation is made upon a principal officer of the corporation by personal delivery or upon the corporation in any other way permitted by law for service of process upon corporations. The Uniform Civil Procedure Rules also provide a unique procedure for serving someone who "keeps home" at a location where the person seeking service cannot legally or practically gain entry.

An Order for Substituted Service may be requested from the court if the individuals cannot serve a document. personally


 The court may, by order, direct that, in lieu of service,  steps are taken to bring the document to the notice of the person concerned if service of a document is required or permitted to be served on the person in connection with any proceedings. 

The court may, by order, direct that the document be deemed to have been served on that person on a date indicated in the order if actions have been taken other than under an order under this rule to bring the document to the knowledge of the person concerned. A motion notice must be submitted to the Court to make such an application.

The Court does not automatically grant an application for an Order for Substituted Service. The server must also submit an affidavit explaining why the document cannot practicably be served on the person or cannot practicably be served in the manner required (including details of any unsuccessful attempts to serve the person) and setting forth the method of substituted service. 

In addition, the applicant must physically be in court on the day their motion is scheduled to be heard. However, the applicant may be able to avoid physically appearing in court and instead do this kind of attendance over the phone, depending on the location. If the court grants substituted service after this is done, the conditions will be outlined in the order. Documents served in a manner authorized by an Order for Substituted Service must include a copy of the Order for Substituted Service.


Once the Originating procedure has been served, there is more leeway in how subsequent papers may be served. For personal service or mailing of a copy of the document, it should be properly addressed to the individual. It is also necessary to provide a  copy of the document addressed to the individual. The appropriate documents can be served upon the person’s residence or their place of business or residence if they are not an active party.

Service on a corporation may be made per the person's specified service method. Suppose the person is not an active party. In that case, the same service can be effected at the person's business or residential address, with a person above sixteen employed or residing at that address. A Multilingual Notice must accompany the claim. 


If the papers were sent, the sender should save the Article Lodgment Receipt, which indicates the date and time the envelope was received at the post office. If the document is being sent internationally, the sender must provide a printout from Australia Post's online tracking service indicating the date and time the envelope was delivered to the address on the envelope as confirmation of delivery. 

If the court orders personal service of the claim, the Sheriff's office will collect an extra fee. The same cost is charged for the service if a professional process server is used. If a process server's fee exceeds the court-mandated maximum, the additional amount belongs to the applicant and cannot be recovered from the respondent. Like the issue fee, this is first paid by the applicant and then added to the total claim amount.

Suppose the respondent's address is invalid, or the claim is returned to the court as unclaimed. In that case, the applicant must either discover a new address for the respondent and inform the court or attempt personal service. Affidavit of Proof of Service (Form 42) must be filed with the court registry if the applicant or a professional process server serves the claim physically on the defendant. A 'proof of service' is what is needed to do this. Whether this is not done, the court won't know if the respondent has been served, and it will not be able to help the applicant go on with the claim.

Serving a claim within six months of issuance is mandatory; however, the deadline might be extended if the court is convinced that reasonable grounds prevented it from being served on time.  Completing and delivering a Final Notice or giving written notice of intent to begin legal action constitutes notice of intent to sue. An Enforceable Payment Agreement may be submitted if the applicant prefers to be paid in installments.

A minimum of twenty-one days must pass after the applicant serves the Final Notice on the respondent before initiating any further action.  An applicant may provide the respondent with a Pre-Action Notice as an alternative to the Final Notice - Form P1. The Respondent is placed on notice that the applicant is requesting payment of a debt and that the applicant may take further action by serving a Pre-Action Notice. The written notification allows the responder to accept the applicant's claim or continue negotiating with the applicant to resolve it.  

The applicant could want to let the responder know about other choices, such as mediation if they feel it will help their case. The Magistrates' Court is competent to mediate legal disputes. This might be provided at a free charge or for a little price, depending on the nature of the issue. 


Documents can be faxed at (800)-296-0115, emailed to, mailed to 590 Madison Avenue, 21 Floor, New York, New York 10022, or dropped off at any of our locations. We do require pre-payment and accept all major credit and debit cards. Once payment is processed, your sales receipt is immediately emailed for your records.

Drop-offs must call and make an appointment first to be added to building security to permit access to our office. Documents for service must be in a sealed envelope with payment in the form of a money order or attorney check (WE DO NOT ACCEPT CASH) payable to UNDISPUTED LEGAL INC.; Our receptionist receives all documents.


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Simply pick up the phone and call Toll Free (800) 774-6922 or click the service you want to purchase. Our dedicated team of professionals is ready to assist you. We can handle all your Australia process service needs; no job is too small or too large!

Contact us for more information about our process-serving agency. We are ready to provide service of process to all our clients globally from our offices in New York, Brooklyn, Queens, Long Island, Westchester, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Washington, D.C.

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1. For example, the Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005 (NSW) and Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 1999 (Qld) are quite different. In Queensland, the rules were intended to be "uniform, so far as practicable, for all three courts in the State stream" – that is, to unify the procedure of the Supreme, District, and Magistrates Court, not participate in a cooperative federalism effort like the Uniform Evidence Acts.

2. However, there are rare circumstances when serving some court papers through registered mail is prohibited by Australian court regulations. For instance, an originating process must generally be personally served on a person (rather than a business).

3. In this case, a letter requesting service of process should be sent with the papers and delivered to the Commonwealth Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

4. The applicable laws may be found in the Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005.

5. This is known as personal service, and it is mandated under the Uniform Civil Procedure Rules (Rule 2(3) of Part 6 and Rule 20(2)(a) of Part 10, respectively).

6. Part 10 rule 21 specifies the qualifications for personal service on an individual:

7. Part 10, rule 22 of the Uniform Civil Procedure Rules, specifies what must be done to effect service on a corporation or a body presumed to be a corporation.

8. To serve a document on a person who maintains house (i.e., stays in premises to which a person attempting service cannot legally or practically acquire access), service is made by dropping the paper into the building's mailbox or taping it to the building's front door or affixing the document to the premises or a fence or wall surrounding the premises as near as practicable to the principal door or entrance to the premises. Within 24 hours after doing so, posting a notice to the premises, addressed to the person keeping house, informing the person that the document has been so placed.

9. The Uniform Civil Procedure Rules, chapter 10, rule 14 governs such a situation.

10. The regulation specifies that the document is considered to have been served on the person involved upon a specified event or the expiration of a defined period.

11. Service on a person who has given a solicitor's office as an address for service may also be made in the following ways:

1.  at the solicitor's office.

(a) by leaving a copy of the document, addressed to the solicitor, in the DX box at that address or in another DX box for transmission to that DX box; 

(b) by faxing a copy of the document to that number; or 

(c) by transmitting an electronic copy of the document to the electronic service address specified in the notice advising the address for service.

If a copy of a document is left in a DX box in accordance with subrule (2)(a), it is deemed to have been served at the end of the second day following the day on which the copy was so left, or 5 of 10 if a copy of a document is faxed in accordance with subrule (2)(b), it is deemed to have been served at the end of the first day following the day on which the copy was so faxed.

12. Form 31) [r 63.3].

13. The sender must next attest in the Affidavit of Proof of Service (Form 42) that the online tracking printout displays a tracking number corresponding to the envelope mailed to the opposite party.

14. The filing fee (the amount the applicant pays the Court to lodge the claim) may not be recovered even if the action is ultimately successful if no notice of intention to suit is supplied [r 332.3(4)].

15. The Magistrates Court's mediation program may be utilized to settle the dispute if all parties agree to attend after the applicant has served notice of the claim using Form P1. Respondents may learn more about their mediation options by reviewing the information provided on Form P1.